New Data of the Cosmeceutical and TriPeptide GHK
SOFW Journal (2015)
GHK-Cu May Prevent Oxidative Stress in Skin
by Regulating Copper and Modifying Expression of
Numerous Antioxidant Genes Cosmetics (2015)
GHK Peptide as a Natural Modulator of
Multiple Cellular Pathways in Skin Regeneration (2015)
GHK, the Human Skin Remodeling Peptide Induces Anti-Cancer
Expression and DNA Repair Analytical Oncology (2014)
GHK and DNA: Resetting the Human Genome to Health
BioMed Research International (2014)
Avoid Buying Fake Copper Peptides Dangerous


Link Between Hair Follicles and Skin Remodeling

Skin renewal and hair follicles are closely linked. New skin is now thought to arise from the hair follicles.  All skin remodeling chemicals or genes that activate skin remodeling also increase hair follicle size. But although skin remodeling improves hair follicle health, it does not create new follicles or grow hair in hairless areas.


Skin Remodeling Chemicals or Methods 
Product or Method
Causes skin remodeling
Present in wounds
 Anti-inflammatory
Increases hair follicle size?
Reduces TGF-beta and scar production
Retinoic acid
(Retin-A)
Yes
Not significant 
No, causes redness and irritation
Yes
No, increases TGF-beta production

First Generation Skin Remodeling Copper Peptides

GHK-Copper 

Yes

1. Rebuilds skin protective barrier 

2. Increases collagen and elastin - more than vitamin C 

3. Increases water-holding proteoglycans 

4. Rebuilds blood microcirculation 

5. Activates removal of damaged skin proteins and scars

Yes, this is the human body's natural remodeling signal

Yes, very potent anti-inflammatory.

Increase superoxide dismutase production, the skin's main antioxidant protein.

Blocks ferritin release of iron that triggers damaging oxidations after injury.

Blocks tissue damaging actions of Interleukin-1, TGF-beta-1, TNF-alpha & reactive carbonyl species.

 

Yes (humans). Also blocks hair loss if given before chemotherapy and accelerates hair growth after chemotherapy (rats)
Yes, reduces TGF-beta-1 and TNF-alpha
Second Generation -  Skin Remodeling Copper Peptides  (developed to find the optimal copper peptide remodeling system) 
Yes, similar to GHK-Copper but not as well studied
Yes

Similar to GHK-Copper,  More effective than cortisone on reducing inflammation in nickel allergy patients

Yes, potent anti-inflammatory

Yes
Reduces scaring but  effect on TGF beta unknown
Increase HEDGEHOG or Wnt Genes in mice, increase production of beta-catenin
Yes
Not applicable
Unknown
Yes
Unknown




Skin Remodeling Starts with Hair Follicles

Skin remodeling starts with the hair follicles. The body's signal for remodeling first activate the systems that break down damaged proteins and remove damaged skin lesion. Various proteins (proteolytic enzymes) start braking down scars and damaged tissue . Then the signals enlarge the hair follicles in  the skin area to be rebuilt. New skin cells arise from the hair follicle and migrate into the surrounding skin area.This effect was first noted about 50 years ago during World War II. It was observed, in patients with severe burns and burn scars, that if hair follicles began growing at the edge of the burned skin, then this was an excellent prognosis for removal of the scarred skin and its replacement by healthy, normal skin. If the follicles were enlarging, the healing was poor and the burn scars remained. Later, in 1985, I found that copper peptides not only stimulated healing of wounds but also increased the size of the hair follicles near the wounds. The copper peptides were not hair growth stimulators, per se, but did increase the hair follicle size and vitality.In recent years, it has been established that genetic modifications in mice that stimulate skin remodeling also increase hair follicle size (Fuchs 1998). Genes such as sonic hedgehog (Sato et al 2001, Nanba et al 2003, Oro et al 2003. Mill eta al 2003), catinin (Huelsken 2001, Van Mater et al 2003), Wnt (Stenn 2001) and Noggin (Botchkarev 2001) all enhance hair follicles then produce remodeling. Role of Sonic hedgehog signaling in epithelial and mesenchymal development of hair follicles in an organ culture of embryonic mouse, Nanba D, Nakanishi Y, Hieda Y., Dev Growth Differ. 2003 Jun;45(3):231-9(Transient activation of beta -catenin signaling in cutaneous keratinocyte is sufficient to trigger the active growth phase of the hair cycle in mice, Van Mater D, Kolligs FT, Dlugosz AA, Fearon ER., Genes Dev. 2003 May 15;17(10):1219-24; Hair cycle regulation of Hedgehog signal reception., Oro AE, Higgins K., Dev Biol. 2003 Mar 15;255(2):238-48, Establishment of cadherin-based intercellular junctions in the dermal  papilla of the developing hair follicle., Nanba D, Nakanishi Y, Hieda Y., Anat Rec. 2003 Feb 1,270A(2):97-102; Sonic hedgehog-dependent activation of Gli2 is essential for embryonic hair follicle development., Mill P, Mo R, Fu H, Grachtchouk M, Kim PC, Dlugosz AA, Hui CC., Genes Dev. 2003 Jan 15;17(2):282-94; Effect of adenovirus-mediated expression of Sonic hedgehog gene on hair regrowth in mice with chemotherapy-induced alopecia., Sato N, Leopold PL, Crystal RG., J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001 Dec 19:93(24):1858-64; Noggin is required for induction of the hair follicle growth phase in postnatal skin., Botchkarev VA, Botchkareva NV, Nakamura M, Huber 0, Funa K, Lauster  R, Paus R Gilchrest BA., FASEB J. 2001 Oct; 15(12):2205-14; beta-Catenin controls hair follicle morphogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the skin., Huelsken J, Vogel R, Erdmann B, Cotsarelis G, Birchmeier W., Cell. 2001 May 18;105(4):533-45; Controls of hair follicle cycling, Stenn KS, Paus R, Physiol Rev. 2001 Jan:81(1):449-494; Beauty is skin deep: the fascinating biology of the epidermis and its appendages., Fuchs E., Harvey Lect. 1998-99:94:47-77)





Hair Follicle
 
 

 
Top Figure.
Hair follicle before remodeling signal.
 
 
 








Middle Figure.
The remodeling signal increases the size of the hair follicles.
 
 






 
Bottom Figure.
The enlarged hair follicle begins to produce new skin cells that migrate into the surrounding skin and rebuild the skin.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 



 France Borel
 

 

 

Prof. Jacque Paul Borel, (Universite de Reims) whose team, later headed by Francois Maquart, was the first the suggest that GHK-Cu stimulates skin remodeling.
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


   France Fran


 
 
 
 Photograph: Second from left - Prof. Francois Maquart, (Universite de Reims), whose research team first classified GHK-Cu as a tissue remodeling signal. Extreme left, Francoise Dominique Pickart, my daughter and then a University of Washington student who learned DNA isolation techniques with Maquart's group.
 
 


Questions or Advice?

Email Dr. Loren Pickart: drlorenpickart@gmail.com

Alternate Email: Ghkcopperpeptides@gmail.com

Call us at 1-800-405-1912 Monday through Friday (8 am to 6 pm) PST