Search Skin Biology

Hydrogels for Osteochondral
Tissue Engineering
Journal of Biomedical

(March 2020)
Anti-Wrinkle Activity
& Transdermal Delivery
of GHK Peptide
Journal of Peptide Science
(March 2020)
Pulsed Glow Discharge
to GHK-Cu Determination
International Journal
of Mass Spectrometry

(March 2020)
Protective Effects of GHK-Cu
in Pulmonary Fibrosis
Life Sciences
(January 2020)
Anti-Wrinkle Benefits
of GHK-Cu Stimulating
Skin Basement Membrane
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
(January 2020)
Structural Analysis
Molecular Dynamics of
Skin Protective
TriPeptide GHK
Journal of Molecular Structure
(January 2020)
In Vitro / In Vivo Studies
pH-sensitive GHK-Cu in
Superabsorbent Polymer
GHK Enhances
Stem Cells Osteogenesis
Acta Biomaterialia
Antibacterial GHK-Cu
Nanoparticles for
Wound Healing
Particle & Particle (2019)
Effect of GHK-Cu
on Stem Cells and
Relevant Genes
OBM Geriatrics
GHK Alleviates
Neuronal Apoptosis Due
to Brain Hemorrhage
Frontiers in Neuroscience
Endogenous Antioxidant
International Journal of Pathophysiology and Pharmacology (2018)
Regenerative and
Protective Actions of
GHK-Cu Peptide
International Journal of
Molecular Sciences
Skin Regenerative and
Anti-Cancer Actions
of Copper Peptides
GHK-Cu Accelerates
Scald Wound Healing
Promoting Angiogenesis
Wound Repair and

GHK Peptide Inhibits
Pulmonary Fibrosis
by Suppressing TGF-β1
Frontiers in Pharmacology
Skin Cancer Therapy
with Copper Peptides
The Effect of Human
Peptide GHK Relevant to
Nervous System Function
and Cognitive Decline
Brain Sciences (2017)
Effects of Tripeptide
GHK in Pain-Induced
Aggressive Behavior
Bulletin of Experimental
Biology & Medicine
GHK-Cu Elicits
In Vitro Alterations
in Extracellular Matrix
Am Journal of Respiratory
and Critical Care Medicine

Selected Biomarkers &
Copper Compounds
Scientific Reports

GHK-Cu on Collagen,
Elastin, and Facial Wrinkles
Journal of Aging Science
Tri-Peptide GHK-Cu
and Acute Lung Injury

Effect of GHK Peptide
on Pain Sensitivity
Experimental Pharmacology

New Data of the
Cosmeceutical and
TriPeptide GHK
SOFW Journal
GHK Peptide as a
Natural Modulator of
Multiple Cellular Pathways
in Skin Regeneration
BioMed Research (2015)
Resetting Skin Genome
Back to Health
Naturally with GHK
Textbook of Aging Skin
GHK-Cu May Prevent
Oxidative Stress in Skin
by Regulating Copper and
Modifying Expression of
Numerous Antioxidant Genes Cosmetics (2015)
GHK Increases
TGF-β1 in
Human Fibroblasts

Acta Poloniae

The Human Skin Remodeling Peptide Induces Anti-Cancer
Expression and DNA Repair Analytical Oncology
Resetting the
Human Genome to Health
BioMed Research
Enhanced Tropic Factor Secretion of Mesenchymal
Stem Cells with GHK
Acta Biomater
Anxiolytic (Anti-Anxiety)
Effects of GHK Peptide
Bulletin of Experimental
Biology & Medicine
Lung Destruction and
its Reversal by GHK
Genome Medicine
TriPeptide GHK Induces
Programmed Cell Death
of Neuroblastoma
Journal of Biotechnology
Stem Cell
Recovering Effect
of GHK in Skin
Peptide Science
Skin Penetration of
Copper Tripeptide in Vitro
Journal of International
Inflammation Research
Possible Therapeutics
for Colorectal Cancer
Journal of Clinical and
Experimental Metastasis
Methods of Controlling
Differentiation and
Proliferation of Stem Cells
Effects of
Copper Tripeptide
on Irradiated Fibroblasts
American Medical Association
Avoid Buying Fake Copper Peptides Dangerous














Link Between Hair Follicles and Skin Remodeling

Skin renewal and hair follicles are closely linked. New skin is now thought to arise from the hair follicles.  All skin remodeling chemicals or genes that activate skin remodeling also increase hair follicle size. But although skin remodeling improves hair follicle health, it does not create new follicles or grow hair in hairless areas.

Skin Remodeling Chemicals or Methods 
Product or Method
Causes skin remodeling
Present in wounds
Increases hair follicle size?
Reduces TGF-beta and scar production
Retinoic acid
Not significant 
No, causes redness and irritation
No, increases TGF-beta production

First Generation Skin Remodeling Copper Peptides



1. Rebuilds skin protective barrier 

2. Increases collagen and elastin - more than vitamin C 

3. Increases water-holding proteoglycans 

4. Rebuilds blood microcirculation 

5. Activates removal of damaged skin proteins and scars

Yes, this is the human body's natural remodeling signal

Yes, very potent anti-inflammatory.

Increase superoxide dismutase production, the skin's main antioxidant protein.

Blocks ferritin release of iron that triggers damaging oxidations after injury.

Blocks tissue damaging actions of Interleukin-1, TGF-beta-1, TNF-alpha & reactive carbonyl species.


Yes (humans). Also blocks hair loss if given before chemotherapy and accelerates hair growth after chemotherapy (rats)
Yes, reduces TGF-beta-1 and TNF-alpha
Second Generation -  Skin Remodeling Copper Peptides  (developed to find the optimal copper peptide remodeling system) 
Yes, similar to GHK-Copper but not as well studied

Similar to GHK-Copper,  More effective than cortisone on reducing inflammation in nickel allergy patients

Yes, potent anti-inflammatory

Reduces scaring but  effect on TGF beta unknown
Increase HEDGEHOG or Wnt Genes in mice, increase production of beta-catenin
Not applicable

Skin Remodeling Starts with Hair Follicles

Skin remodeling starts with the hair follicles. The body's signal for remodeling first activate the systems that break down damaged proteins and remove damaged skin lesion. Various proteins (proteolytic enzymes) start braking down scars and damaged tissue . Then the signals enlarge the hair follicles in  the skin area to be rebuilt. New skin cells arise from the hair follicle and migrate into the surrounding skin area.This effect was first noted about 50 years ago during World War II. It was observed, in patients with severe burns and burn scars, that if hair follicles began growing at the edge of the burned skin, then this was an excellent prognosis for removal of the scarred skin and its replacement by healthy, normal skin. If the follicles were enlarging, the healing was poor and the burn scars remained. Later, in 1985, I found that copper peptides not only stimulated healing of wounds but also increased the size of the hair follicles near the wounds. The copper peptides were not hair growth stimulators, per se, but did increase the hair follicle size and vitality.In recent years, it has been established that genetic modifications in mice that stimulate skin remodeling also increase hair follicle size (Fuchs 1998). Genes such as sonic hedgehog (Sato et al 2001, Nanba et al 2003, Oro et al 2003. Mill eta al 2003), catinin (Huelsken 2001, Van Mater et al 2003), Wnt (Stenn 2001) and Noggin (Botchkarev 2001) all enhance hair follicles then produce remodeling. Role of Sonic hedgehog signaling in epithelial and mesenchymal development of hair follicles in an organ culture of embryonic mouse, Nanba D, Nakanishi Y, Hieda Y., Dev Growth Differ. 2003 Jun;45(3):231-9(Transient activation of beta -catenin signaling in cutaneous keratinocyte is sufficient to trigger the active growth phase of the hair cycle in mice, Van Mater D, Kolligs FT, Dlugosz AA, Fearon ER., Genes Dev. 2003 May 15;17(10):1219-24; Hair cycle regulation of Hedgehog signal reception., Oro AE, Higgins K., Dev Biol. 2003 Mar 15;255(2):238-48, Establishment of cadherin-based intercellular junctions in the dermal  papilla of the developing hair follicle., Nanba D, Nakanishi Y, Hieda Y., Anat Rec. 2003 Feb 1,270A(2):97-102; Sonic hedgehog-dependent activation of Gli2 is essential for embryonic hair follicle development., Mill P, Mo R, Fu H, Grachtchouk M, Kim PC, Dlugosz AA, Hui CC., Genes Dev. 2003 Jan 15;17(2):282-94; Effect of adenovirus-mediated expression of Sonic hedgehog gene on hair regrowth in mice with chemotherapy-induced alopecia., Sato N, Leopold PL, Crystal RG., J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001 Dec 19:93(24):1858-64; Noggin is required for induction of the hair follicle growth phase in postnatal skin., Botchkarev VA, Botchkareva NV, Nakamura M, Huber 0, Funa K, Lauster  R, Paus R Gilchrest BA., FASEB J. 2001 Oct; 15(12):2205-14; beta-Catenin controls hair follicle morphogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the skin., Huelsken J, Vogel R, Erdmann B, Cotsarelis G, Birchmeier W., Cell. 2001 May 18;105(4):533-45; Controls of hair follicle cycling, Stenn KS, Paus R, Physiol Rev. 2001 Jan:81(1):449-494; Beauty is skin deep: the fascinating biology of the epidermis and its appendages., Fuchs E., Harvey Lect. 1998-99:94:47-77)

Hair Follicle

Top Figure.
Hair follicle before remodeling signal.

Middle Figure.
The remodeling signal increases the size of the hair follicles.

Bottom Figure.
The enlarged hair follicle begins to produce new skin cells that migrate into the surrounding skin and rebuild the skin.


 France Borel



Prof. Jacque Paul Borel, (Universite de Reims) whose team, later headed by Francois Maquart, was the first the suggest that GHK-Cu stimulates skin remodeling.


   France Fran

 Photograph: Second from left - Prof. Francois Maquart, (Universite de Reims), whose research team first classified GHK-Cu as a tissue remodeling signal. Extreme left, Francoise Dominique Pickart, my daughter and then University of Washington student who learned DNA isolation techniques with Maquart's group.

Questions or Advice?

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