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Hydrogels for Osteochondral
Tissue Engineering
Journal of Biomedical

(March 2020)
Anti-Wrinkle Activity
& Transdermal Delivery
of GHK Peptide
Journal of Peptide Science
(March 2020)
Pulsed Glow Discharge
to GHK-Cu Determination
International Journal
of Mass Spectrometry

(March 2020)
Protective Effects of GHK-Cu
in Pulmonary Fibrosis
Life Sciences
(January 2020)
Anti-Wrinkle Benefits
of GHK-Cu Stimulating
Skin Basement Membrane
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
(January 2020)
Structural Analysis
Molecular Dynamics of
Skin Protective
TriPeptide GHK
Journal of Molecular Structure
(January 2020)
In Vitro / In Vivo Studies
pH-sensitive GHK-Cu in
Superabsorbent Polymer
GHK Enhances
Stem Cells Osteogenesis
Acta Biomaterialia
Antibacterial GHK-Cu
Nanoparticles for
Wound Healing
Particle & Particle (2019)
Effect of GHK-Cu
on Stem Cells and
Relevant Genes
OBM Geriatrics
GHK Alleviates
Neuronal Apoptosis Due
to Brain Hemorrhage
Frontiers in Neuroscience
Endogenous Antioxidant
International Journal of Pathophysiology and Pharmacology (2018)
Regenerative and
Protective Actions of
GHK-Cu Peptide
International Journal of
Molecular Sciences
Skin Regenerative and
Anti-Cancer Actions
of Copper Peptides
GHK-Cu Accelerates
Scald Wound Healing
Promoting Angiogenesis
Wound Repair and

GHK Peptide Inhibits
Pulmonary Fibrosis
by Suppressing TGF-β1
Frontiers in Pharmacology
Skin Cancer Therapy
with Copper Peptides
The Effect of Human
Peptide GHK Relevant to
Nervous System Function
and Cognitive Decline
Brain Sciences (2017)
Effects of Tripeptide
GHK in Pain-Induced
Aggressive Behavior
Bulletin of Experimental
Biology & Medicine
GHK-Cu Elicits
In Vitro Alterations
in Extracellular Matrix
Am Journal of Respiratory
and Critical Care Medicine

Selected Biomarkers &
Copper Compounds
Scientific Reports

GHK-Cu on Collagen,
Elastin, and Facial Wrinkles
Journal of Aging Science
Tri-Peptide GHK-Cu
and Acute Lung Injury

Effect of GHK Peptide
on Pain Sensitivity
Experimental Pharmacology

New Data of the
Cosmeceutical and
TriPeptide GHK
SOFW Journal
GHK Peptide as a
Natural Modulator of
Multiple Cellular Pathways
in Skin Regeneration
BioMed Research (2015)
Resetting Skin Genome
Back to Health
Naturally with GHK
Textbook of Aging Skin
GHK-Cu May Prevent
Oxidative Stress in Skin
by Regulating Copper and
Modifying Expression of
Numerous Antioxidant Genes Cosmetics (2015)
GHK Increases
TGF-β1 in
Human Fibroblasts

Acta Poloniae

The Human Skin Remodeling Peptide Induces Anti-Cancer
Expression and DNA Repair Analytical Oncology
Resetting the
Human Genome to Health
BioMed Research
Enhanced Tropic Factor Secretion of Mesenchymal
Stem Cells with GHK
Acta Biomater
Anxiolytic (Anti-Anxiety)
Effects of GHK Peptide
Bulletin of Experimental
Biology & Medicine
Lung Destruction and
its Reversal by GHK
Genome Medicine
TriPeptide GHK Induces
Programmed Cell Death
of Neuroblastoma
Journal of Biotechnology
Stem Cell
Recovering Effect
of GHK in Skin
Peptide Science
Skin Penetration of
Copper Tripeptide in Vitro
Journal of International
Inflammation Research
Possible Therapeutics
for Colorectal Cancer
Journal of Clinical and
Experimental Metastasis
Methods of Controlling
Differentiation and
Proliferation of Stem Cells
Effects of
Copper Tripeptide
on Irradiated Fibroblasts
American Medical Association
Avoid Buying Fake Copper Peptides Dangerous














Background of Regenerative Copper Peptides (1962 to 2020)

GHK-Cu emerged during my graduate work at the University of Minnesota from 1962-1965, and later at the Sansum Institute in Santa Barbara, California. I was attempting to reverse certain changes that occur during human aging. The goal was to suppress the synthesis of the blood fibrinogen, a protein that rises with age and rises even more after myocardial infraction. Its blood concentration is an excellent predictor of mortality. Elevated fibrinogen levels increase blood coagulation and decrease tissue perfusion, by increasing the thixotropic properties (toothpaste-like) of blood in the microcirculation.       

I found that the albumin fraction of human blood plasma had a suppressive action on fibrinogen synthesis and also improved the survival of the cultured liver cells that produce fibrinogen. Later during Ph.D. thesis work at the University of California at San Francisco (1969-1973), I found that these activities concentrated from albumin into a low molecular weight fraction that contained GHK-Cu. In 1979, I moved to Seattle where subsequent work defined the three dimensional solution structure of GHK-Cu and the binding affinities between GHK and copper (II).  My colleagues at the University of Washington (Seattle) and I used the structure of GHK-Cu to create analogs that were very potent cell growth inhibitors, inhibiting fibroblast replication at concentrations equivalent to chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin and bleomycin. During surgical procedures to test these inhibitors on the suppression of tumor growth in mice, GHK-Cu was used as a control substance. It became apparent that GHK-Cu was rapidly healing the surgical incisions needed in these procedures.    

Later research found that GHK is generated during tissue damage or normal tissue turnover, and suggested that, after tissue damage, GHK-Cu serves as a human feedback signal that has potent tissue protective properties and stimulates tissue remodeling after the initial phase of wound healing. It is postulated that a localized generation of GHK-Cu after tissue damage causes an influx of skin repair cells called macrophages which initiate skin repair mechanisms. The decrease in the blood concentrations of GHK-Cu during human aging may be a factor in the decreased tissue repair and subsequent increased organ failure that occurs during aging. 

By 2009, I published a paper viewing GHK as a factor that might reverse many of the degenerative diseases of human aging. By 2010 to 2012, the Broad Institute published huge amounts of data on GHK's effects on human gene expression. This led to studies that predicted that GHK would to be the most effective bioactive molecule, of 1,309 tested, to treat aggressive, metastatic cancer and also COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). GHK was found the reset genes of diseased cells from patients with cancer patients or COPD to a more healthy state. Very small amounts of GHK caused cancer cells reset their programmed cell death system while COPD patients cells shut down tissue distructive genes and activated repair and remodeling activities.

During human aging there is an increase in the activity of inflammatory, cancer promoting, and tissue destructive genes plus a decrease in the activity of regenerative and reparative genes. The human blood tripeptide GHK possesses many positive effects but declines with age. It improves wound healing and tissue regeneration (skin, hair follicles, stomach and intestinal linings, boney tissue), increases collagen, decorin, angiogenesis, and nerve outgrowth, possesses anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, increases cellular stemness and the secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. GHK may become a general treatment for many diseases of aging.

For additional studies/research occurring through 2020, see: More GHK-Cu Published Studies & Articles

Questions or Advice?

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